Divakar, P.K., Crespo, A., Wedin, M., Leavitt, S.D., Hawksworth, D.L., Myllys, L., McCune, B., Randlane, T., Bjerke, J.W., Ohmura, Y., Schmitt, I., Boluda, S.G., Alors, D., Roca-Valiente, B., Del-Prado, R., Ruibal, C., Buaruang, K., Núñez-Zapata, J., Amo de Paz, G., Rico, V.J., Molina, M.C., Elix, J.A., Esslinger, T.L., Tronstad, I.K.K., Lindgren, H., Ertz, D., Gueidan, C., Saag, L., Mark, K., Singh, G., Dal Grande, F., Parnmen, S., Beck, A., Navarro Benatti, M., Blanchon, D., Candan, M., Clerc, Ph., الملیل فهرست اصالحات اکسنومییک فهرست مقاالت علیم در مجالت معتربعلیم ب ین 6 H-Index: 12 جوایز وگرنت های پژوهرش  Iranian Scholarship Office- Grant for PhD study 2005-2009  Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica - A small research grant for taxonomic research on Aspicilia s. lat in the world  Vanamo Travel Grant )Visit UPS, S in Sweden and TU in Estonia(  University of Helsinki International Student Grant- Outstanding International Student  SYNTHESYS: the European Unionfunded Integrated Activities grant )Visit B and C herbaria(  The Winner of Sylvia Sharnoff Education Award, IAL7 Bangkok 2012 Goward, T., Grube, M., Hodkinson, B.P., Hur, J-S., Kantvilas, G., Kirika, P.M., Lendemer, J., Mattsson, J-E., Messuti, M.I., Miadlikowska, J., Nelsen, M., Ohlson, J.I., Pérez-Ortega, S., Saag, A., Sipman, H.J.M., Sohrabi, M., Thell, A., Thor, G., Truong, C., Yahr, R., Upreti, D.K., Cubas, P. * H.T., Lumbsch
New Phytologist 208: 1217–1226.ISI
  • We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen‐forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi.
  • We assembled a six‐locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low‐copy protein‐coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs).
  • The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene.
  • Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen‐forming ascomycetes.

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